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Without reflection, learning ends well short of the re-organization of thinking that deep learning requires (Ewell,1997)." (INTIME, 2001). "Answering study questions only require low-level recognition." (Goodwin, 2014).  Learning products can vastly enhance and increase knowledge, understanding and long-lasting connections.

embrace modules/tools


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LC Module: Graphic Organizers

Reflection tools for identifying, restructuring and organizing lesson content into graphical representations,

"A graphic allows readers to see relationships, understand organization, connect ideas, and make abstract ideas concrete.” (Perfect Learning Corporation, 2014)
"Using graphic organizers to represent similarities and differences has been shown to improve students’ understanding of content as well as their ability to recognize and generate similarities and differences.” (Ohio Dept of Ed, 2014)
“According to Joseph Novak and Alberto Cañas, the human brain remembers information by organizing it into hierarchical structures; since concept mapping requires the intentional construction of this “scaffold,” it helps individuals to learn better, remember more, and apply what they have learned in novel situations.” (Temple.edu, n.d.)
“(Graphic) Organizers portray knowledge in a meaningful way which helps bring clarity to ideas as connections are made. Having a way to organize ideas, facts, and concepts graphically facilitates effective student learning. Graphic organizers match the mind.” (Mentoring Minds, 2014)
"Mind mapping allows students to imagine and explore associations between concepts represented. Concept mapping allows students to understand the relationships between concepts.” (Davies, 2010)
“Every concept map responds to a focus question, and a good focus question can lead to a much richer concept map. Concept mapping is so powerful for the facilitation of meaningful learning is that it serves as a kind of template or scaffold to help to organize knowledge and to structure it.” (Novak & Canas, 2008)
As researcher David P. Ausubel has shown, the mind arranges and stores information in an orderly fashion. New information about a concept is filed into an existing framework of categories called a schema. A schema already contains preexisting knowledge about that concept. Graphic organizers arrange information in a visual pattern that complements this framework, making information easier to understand and learn.” (Mentoring Minds, 2014)

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LC Module: Learning Products

Reflection tools for re-organizing, restructuring and consolidating lesson content into tangible, long lasting learning products.

“Learning Products allow students to chunk and consolidate creatively. “Chunking is a very effective way of enlarging working memory’s capacity. Too often, information deemed important is taught just once and the students are expected to remember for a lifetime. We cannot recall later what we have not stored” (Sousa, 2011)
“Recognizing that the creative cognitive process is the highest level identified and employs the use of thinking skills in all of the other levels.” (Combs, 2003)
“Effective summarizing leads to an increase in student learning. Students have to analyze information at a deep level in order to decide what information to delete, what to substitute, and what to keep when asked to give a summary (Anderson, V., & Hidi, 1988/1989; Hidi & Anderson, 1987).” (NREL, 2005)
“A good amount of research supports the idea that the ability to summarize has a positive impact on achievement. Summarization training has been shown to increase the recall of major information from reading, studying and lectures (King, 1992; Rinehart et al, 1986) and on writing summaries (Armbruster, 1987).” (Ohio Dept of Ed, 2014)
"Summarizing may encourage deeper engagement with a text and encourage students to reread as they construct a summary (Kamil, 2004). Summarizing either taught alone (e.g., Armbruster et al., 1987) or as one of several strategies (e.g., Palincsar & Brown, 1984) has been shown to improve comprehension and memory for what was read (National Reading Panel, 2000). Summarizing is a complex activity that involves paraphrasing and reorganizing text information.”(Rice, 2004)
“Based on over a decade of research regarding the benefits of technology integration in today’s classroom, there is overwhelming evidence that supports the use of technology to raise student achievement. By allowing students to engage in technology-enhanced curriculum, educators can ensure that their students will have the necessary skills to be competitive in the global workforce.” (Gasell, 2008)

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LC Module: Reflection Questions

Reflection tools that generate questions to restructure thinking, show comparisons and stimulate higher thinking skills

“Asking and answering questions is at the heart of high-quality thinking. Questions naturally arise from the desire to know and learn things and may be the starting point for a journey of understanding.” (Open University, 2014)
"Paul (1985) points out that thinking is not driven by answers but by questions. The driving forces in the thinking process are the questions. When a student needs to think through an idea or issue or to rethink anything, questions must be asked to stimulate thought. When answers are given, sometimes thinking stops completely. When an answer generates another question then thought continues. Teaching students to generate their own questions as part of the learning process is an effective way to boost metacognition and encourage higher level thinking.” (R.W. Paul as stated Mentoring Minds, 2014)
"Questions lead to understanding. Many students typically have no questions. They might sit in silence with their minds inactive as well. Sometimes the questions students have tend to be shallow and nebulous which might demonstrate that they are not thinking through the content they are expected to be learning. If we, as educators, want students to think, we must stimulate and cultivate thinking with questions (Paul, 1990)”. (R.W. Paul as stated Mentoring Minds, 2014)
“ReQuest (Manzo, 1969). ReQuest stands for Reciprocal Questioning in which the students ask the teacher questions. To do this activity, the students and the teacher read the text carefully. Then students get into groups to create questions they want to ask the teacher (230 Hurst & Pearman—“Teach Reading?) The same process can be used for the groups to ask each other questions.” (Hurst & Pearman, n.d.)

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